MOKHAMMED KHAYDAR DULATY (1499–1551) One of the prominent sons of the Kazakh people, forgotten during the totalitarian system, is Muhammad Khaidar Dulaty, who lived and worked in a difficult era. The full name of Dulaty was Myrza Muhammad Haidar Bon Muhammad Husain Douglat Koregen.
Muhammad Khaidar Dulaty was born in 1499 in Tashkent, died in 1551 in the Kashmir region in India. The famous historian, writer. Known in the literature as Khaidar Myrza, Myrza Khaidar. Muhammad Khaidar Dulaty is the author of the dhan "Jahan-name", which is included in the historical guide to Mogulistan and its border areas - "Tarihi Rashidi." The ancestors of Mohammed Haidar Dulaty were prominent political figures in the territory of southeastern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and East Turkestan, which was part of the state of Mogulistan. They held the posts of ulusbeks, tarhans and managed their hereditary possession - Manglai-Suben. Amir Polatshy (Puladchi) dulat during the collapse of the Chagatai state in the middle of the 15th century appointed Tugylyk Timur as khan of the eastern part of this state. Another ancestor of Mohammed Haidar Dulaty - Amir Khudaydat - when he was an ulusbek, replaced six khans on the Mughal throne.
The grandfather of Mohammed Khaidar Dulaty - Myrza Mohammed Khaidar ruled Kashgar until 1480, his father Mohammed Khusain was one of the associates of Khan Sultan Mahmud, who ruled the eastern part of Mogolistan in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. The mother of Muhammad Haidar Dulati, Khansha Khubnigar, was the daughter of Zhunis Khan, who, in turn, was the cousin of Sultan Said and the founder of the Mughal dynasty, Zahar ad-din Muhammad Babur, who ruled India.
Muhammad Haidar Dulaty’s childhood dates back to the time of the decline of the state of the Timur dynasty in Central Asia, which occurred under pressure from the Uzbek nomads Muhammad Sheybani, the collapse of Mogulistan and the rise of the Kazakh Khanate. After the death of his father, during the war between Khan Sultan Mahmoud and Khan Muhammad Sheybani, relatives of Muhammad Haidar Dulaty sent him to Kabul to Babur. Muhammad Khaidar Dulaty participated in the campaign organized by Babur on Maverannahr. Since 1512, Mohammed Khaidar Dulaty, being in the palace of Khan Sultan Said in Kashgar, held prominent military and other court posts. He took part in the war with Abu Bakr over Kashgar and Zharkent in 1514, as well as in military campaigns in Kyrgyzstan, southeastern Kazakhstan and Tibet. Mohammed Khaidar Dulaty raised the heir to the khan’s throne - Abu ar-Rashid Sultan.
According to Babur, Muhammad Khaidar Dulaty possessed encyclopedic knowledge. He was aware of all political events, knew politicians. Muhammad Khaidar Dulaty was a good connoisseur of the history of Kazakhstan and Central Asia, Mogulistan, especially the feudal part of the Dulat tribe. In 1541-1546, in Kashmir, he wrote Tarih-i Rashidi (The History of Rashid).
Mohammed Khaidar Dulaty wrote this work in Persian, drawing on the generations of past tales of the Dulat, legends of the Moguls, secret documents preserved in the palaces of the Mogul khans, eyewitness accounts and his observations. The author also used the historical works of such famous scholars of the past as Zhuweini, Jamal Karashi, Rashid al-Din, Sharaf al-Din Ali Yazdi, Abd ar-Razak Samarkani and others. All this allows us to characterize this work as a historical reference based on clear archival data. Muhammad Khaidar Dulaty left very valuable information regarding the medieval history of the Kazakhs.
Tarih-i Rashidi contains a lot of information about the formation of the Kazakh Khanate, about further events in Zhetysu and East Desht-i-Kypchak, the fall of Mogulistan, feudal wars, the establishment of friendly alliances between Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and Uzbeks in the fight against the external enemy. The work also has a lot of valuable data on the socio-economic situation of South and East Kazakhstan in the XV-XVI centuries, on the historical geography of the medieval Kazakhstani Zhetysu, urban and agricultural culture of the Kazakhs.
“Tarih-i Rashidi” consists of two notebooks. The first describes in detail the history of the rulers of Mogolistan - the khans from the Chagatai dynasty. The second notebook is composed in the form of memoirs, it refers to historical events until the conquest of Mirza Mohammed Khaidar (grandfather of Dulat) of Kashgar. It also tells about the struggle of the Sultan Said Khan for power in Mogolistan, about the conquest of the lands of the Dulat tribe and the creation of the Mogolistan in 1541, about the desire of the Chagatai dynasty to return the former possessions of the Mogolistan - Zhetysu and Tien Shan, about the relationship of the Mogul khans with the Chagatai dynasty and the Kazakh . “Tarih-i Rashidi” also covers historical events that took place in the XV-XVI centuries in Central Asia, East Turkestan, Afghanistan, India. Today, the versions of Tarih-i Rashidi translated into Persian and Turkish are stored in St. Petersburg, Tashkent, Dushanbe
Abu ar-Rashid, who again sat on the throne in 1533, fearing his fellow tribesmen, began to pursue them. Muhammad Haidar Dulaty's cousin, Said Muhammad, killed Dulat, after which Muhammad Haidar Dulaty fled to India. There he led the warriors in the palace of the Mughals.
Muhammad Khaidar Dulaty died in 1551 during an uprising of local residents.
Kazakhstan began to pay great attention to Dulaty after the Republic of Kazakhstan gained independence. A special conference was held to mark its 500th anniversary under the auspices of UNESCO. The life of Muhammad Haidar Dulaty and his work deserves a more in-depth study, and knowledge about him is widely disseminated among people.
Almost five centuries later, the great scientist, writer, poet, statesman and military leader Mohammed Khaidar Dulaty returned to us (1499-1551). Finally, we got the opportunity to draw rich information from his unique historical work “Tarih-i-Rashidi”, a source of objective information about Central Asia. He also wrote the Turkic poetic treatise on geography "Jahan-name." But the example of scientific and artistic composition remains his work “Tarih-i-Rashidi”, where “Rashidi” means “following the true creed,” “he is on the right track.”